Where Is Syria in Ancient Times?

Syria – A Land of Rich History and Culture

Syria is a country located in the Middle East, sharing borders with Turkey, Iraq, Jordan, Israel, and Lebanon. It is a land of diverse cultures and ancient history that dates back thousands of years.

Ancient Syria

In ancient times, Syria was a part of several empires and civilizations that have played a significant role in shaping the history of the region. It was first mentioned in the 19th century BCE as part of the empire of Ebla, which was situated in modern-day Syria.

The Amorites

In the second millennium BCE, the Amorites established their rule over Syria. They were one of the dominant groups in Mesopotamia and became renowned for their military prowess and cultural achievements. The Amorites built several cities across Syria, including Damascus and Aleppo.

The Assyrians

The Assyrians conquered Syria in the 9th century BCE and made it a part of their vast empire. They ruled over it for more than three centuries before being defeated by Babylonians.

The Persians

In 539 BCE, Cyrus the Great defeated the Babylonians and added Syria to his expanding Achaemenid Empire. The Persians ruled over Syria for more than two centuries before being conquered by Alexander the Great.

The Greeks

The Greek Empire under Alexander’s rule spread across Asia Minor and into Egypt. He founded several cities across Syria named after himself or members of his family – such as Alexandria – which became important centers of trade and commerce.

The Romans

After Alexander’s death, his empire was divided among his generals. In 64 BCE, Pompey conquered Syria for Rome after defeating its last Seleucid ruler Antiochus XIII. The Roman Empire ruled over Syria for more than four centuries, during which time Christianity was introduced and became the dominant religion.

The Islamic Caliphate

In the 7th century CE, the Islamic Caliphate under the leadership of Umar ibn al-Khattab conquered Syria. It became an important center of Islamic culture and learning, with several prominent scholars and thinkers emerging from the region.

The Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire conquered Syria in 1516 and ruled over it for more than four centuries. During this time, Syria experienced significant economic growth and cultural development.


Syria’s rich history is a testament to its strategic location between Europe, Asia, and Africa. The country has been a part of several empires and civilizations throughout history that have left their mark on its culture, architecture, and traditions. Today, despite ongoing conflicts and political instability, Syria remains a land of great beauty and cultural significance.