Which Is the Most Ancient Civilization of Europe?

Europe is home to many ancient civilizations that have contributed significantly to the development of modern-day society. From Greece to Rome, there are numerous civilizations that have left a lasting impact on the world.

However, when it comes to the most ancient civilization in Europe, there are a few contenders. Let’s take a closer look.

The Oldest Civilization in Europe

The oldest civilization in Europe is the Minoan civilization, which existed on the island of Crete from around 2600 BC to 1100 BC. The Minoans were known for their impressive architecture, intricate artwork, and advanced writing system known as Linear A. Unfortunately, much of their written record has been lost over time.

The Minoans were also known for their trade and commerce. They had a vast network of trade routes that spanned across the Mediterranean and beyond. Their trading partners included Egypt, Cyprus, and even distant lands like Afghanistan.

The Mycenaean Civilization

Another contender for the title of the most ancient civilization in Europe is the Mycenaean civilization. It existed on mainland Greece from around 1600 BC to 1100 BC and was known for its impressive fortifications and military prowess.

The Mycenaeans were also skilled artisans and craftsmen, producing beautiful pottery and intricate gold jewelry that is still admired today. They were also known for their mythological stories about gods and heroes like Achilles and Odysseus.

The Ancient Greeks

When most people think of ancient European civilizations, they immediately think of Greece. The Ancient Greeks existed from around 800 BC to 146 BC and left an indelible mark on Western culture through their contributions in philosophy, art, literature, science, politics, and more.

The Ancient Greeks were pioneers in many fields like mathematics with famous mathematicians like Pythagoras paving way with his theorem which is still used today. They also had a democracy, which was revolutionary at the time, as well as a range of influential philosophers such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.

The Roman Empire

Although not technically the oldest civilization in Europe, the Roman Empire is undoubtedly one of the most influential. It existed from 753 BC to 476 AD and was known for its vast empire that spanned across Europe, Asia, and Africa.

The Romans were skilled engineers and built impressive structures like aqueducts and roads that are still in use today. They also had a vast network of trade routes that facilitated commerce throughout their empire.


In conclusion, while there are many ancient civilizations in Europe with their unique contributions, it is the Minoan civilization that holds the title for being the oldest. Nonetheless, all these civilizations have contributed immensely to modern-day society with their artistry, philosophy and engineering techniques and continue to be studied even today.