Which Was the Main Trade Centre Between India and Europe Since Ancient Times?

India and Europe have been connected by trade routes for centuries. Since ancient times, there have been many trade centers between these two regions.

But which one was the main trade center? Let’s find out.


India has always been a land of spices, silk, and other valuable commodities. The Europeans were fascinated by these exotic goods and wanted to establish trade relations with India. The ancient trade routes between India and Europe gave birth to many flourishing trade centers.

Alexandria – The First Major Trade Centre

One of the earliest known trade centers between India and Europe was Alexandria. Located in Egypt, Alexandria was the first major port city that connected India with the Mediterranean world. It became a hub for trading spices, textiles, and precious stones from India.

The Silk Route

The Silk Route was another important trade route that connected India with Europe and other parts of Asia. It got its name from the Chinese silk that was traded along this route. The Silk Route passed through various countries such as China, Central Asia, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and finally reached Europe.

The Spice Trade

The spice trade was another significant factor that brought India and Europe closer. Spices like pepper, cinnamon, ginger, cloves were in high demand in Europe for their medicinal properties as well as for cooking purposes. These spices were traded through various ports along the western coast of India such as Calicut (Kozhikode), Cochin (Kochi), and Goa.

Gujarat – The Main Trade Centre

Gujarat emerged as the main center of trade between India and Europe during the medieval period. It had a strategic location on the west coast of India that made it an ideal port for European traders to dock their ships and conduct business with Indian merchants.

In particular, the city of Surat became a prominent center of trade between India and Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries. It was known for its textile industry, and European traders were interested in importing Indian cotton textiles such as chintz and calico.


In conclusion, there have been many trade centers between India and Europe since ancient times. Alexandria, the Silk Route, and the spice trade were all important routes that connected these two regions.

However, Gujarat emerged as the main center of trade during the medieval period with Surat becoming a hub for textile trading in particular. The trade relations between India and Europe have evolved over time, but their historical ties remain strong.