Who Came to India in Ancient Times?

India is a land of diverse cultures and traditions, with a rich history that dates back to ancient times. Over the centuries, various groups of people have come to India, each leaving their mark on the country’s cultural fabric. In this article, we will take a closer look at some of the major groups that came to India in ancient times.

Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the world’s earliest urban civilizations, dating back to around 2600 BCE. It was spread across the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, including parts of present-day India and Pakistan. The people of this civilization were primarily involved in agriculture and trade and were known for their advanced urban planning and architecture.


The Aryans were a group of people who migrated to India from Central Asia around 1500 BCE. They brought with them their own language, Sanskrit, which became the basis for many Indian languages. The Aryans were primarily pastoralists and originally settled in the northwestern region of India before spreading further south.

Alexander the Great

In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great invaded India as part of his conquests. He entered through present-day Pakistan and went as far east as the Beas River before turning back due to his troops’ fatigue and refusal to move further east. Although his invasion was short-lived, it had a significant impact on Indian history, opening up trade routes between India and Greece.


The Mughals were a Muslim dynasty that ruled over much of India from 1526 until 1857. They came from Central Asia but settled in present-day Afghanistan before invading India under Babur’s leadership. The Mughals brought with them Persian culture, art, music, and architecture that had a profound impact on Indian society.

Portuguese, Dutch and British

The Portuguese were the first European power to arrive in India in the early 16th century. They established trading posts along the western coast of India and Goa, which they ruled until 1961. The Dutch arrived soon after and established their presence in present-day Tamil Nadu, while the British came later in the 17th century and gradually took control of much of India.


In conclusion, India’s history is a result of various groups of people who came to the country over time, each leaving their mark on its culture and traditions. From the Indus Valley Civilization to the Mughals and European powers like Portuguese, Dutch, and British, all have contributed to shaping India into what it is today. Understanding these influences is essential to appreciate the diversity and richness that Indian culture has to offer.