Who Did Ancient Greece Merchants Trade With?

In ancient Greece, merchants played a crucial role in the economy by engaging in trade both within the Greek world and with other civilizations. They sailed across the Mediterranean Sea, establishing connections and conducting business with various regions. Let’s explore some of the major trade partners of ancient Greek merchants:

1. Egypt

The ancient Greeks had a strong trading relationship with Egypt, which was known for its abundant agricultural resources and highly valued commodities. Greek merchants traded goods such as olive oil, wine, pottery, and textiles for Egyptian wheat, papyrus, linen, and precious metals.

2. Persia

Persia (modern-day Iran) was another significant trading partner of ancient Greece. The Persians provided valuable goods such as spices, silk, and precious stones in exchange for Greek products like olive oil, wine, pottery, and marble.

3. Phoenicia

The Phoenicians were skilled seafarers and traders who inhabited the coastal areas of modern-day Lebanon and Syria.

They were renowned for their craftsmanship in producing purple dye and glassware. Greek merchants traded wine, olive oil, and silver for Phoenician goods.

4. Rome

As the Roman Empire expanded its territories to include Greece during the Hellenistic period, trade between the two regions grew significantly. Greek merchants traded various goods like marble statues, pottery, glassware, jewelry, and textiles for Roman products such as grain, timber, gold coins, and luxury items.

5. Carthage

The city-state of Carthage (located in present-day Tunisia) was a prominent trading power in the Mediterranean during ancient times. Greek merchants engaged in trade with Carthaginians for commodities like silver ore from Spain, ivory, textiles, and agricultural products like wheat and olive oil.

6. Black Sea Region

The Greek colonies along the Black Sea coast, such as Byzantium (later Constantinople), had a flourishing trade network. Greek merchants in this region traded goods like wheat, timber, honey, and slaves for valuable commodities such as gold, furs, and precious metals.


Ancient Greek merchants were active participants in the Mediterranean trade network, establishing connections with various regions and civilizations. Their trading partners included Egypt, Persia, Phoenicia, Rome, Carthage, and the Black Sea region. These trade relationships not only facilitated the exchange of goods but also played a significant role in cultural diffusion and the spread of ideas throughout the ancient world.