Who United Ancient Greece?

Ancient Greece was a collection of city-states, each with its own government and culture. It wasn’t until the 4th century BC that a unification of sorts occurred. But who united ancient Greece?

Athens and Sparta

Athens and Sparta were two of the most powerful city-states in Ancient Greece. They were also bitter rivals, with vastly different political systems and societies. Athens was a democracy, while Sparta was an oligarchy.

Despite their differences, Athens and Sparta joined forces to fight against the Persians during the Greco-Persian Wars in the early 5th century BC. This alliance, known as the Hellenic League, was led by Athens.

Philip II of Macedon

In 338 BC, Philip II of Macedon defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea. This marked the end of Greek independence and the beginning of Macedonian rule over Greece.

Philip’s son, Alexander the Great, continued his father’s legacy by conquering much of the known world. Alexander spread Greek culture throughout his empire, which helped to unify the various regions under his rule.

The Hellenistic Age

After Alexander’s death in 323 BC, his empire was divided among his generals. This period is known as the Hellenistic Age. Despite being fragmented into smaller kingdoms, Greek culture continued to thrive.

During this time, new schools of philosophy emerged, such as Stoicism and Epicureanism. The arts also flourished under Hellenistic rulers like Ptolemy II in Egypt.

Roman Conquest

In 146 BC, Rome conquered Greece after a series of wars known as the Macedonian Wars. Greece became part of the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire.

Despite being ruled by Rome for centuries, Greek culture continued to influence the Roman world. Roman writers like Virgil and Ovid drew heavily from Greek mythology and literature.


In conclusion, the unification of Ancient Greece was a gradual process that occurred over several centuries. The Hellenic League led by Athens and Sparta, the Macedonian Empire under Philip II and Alexander the Great, the Hellenistic Age, and finally the Roman conquest all played a role in shaping Greek history and culture.