Who Were the Mughals AP World History?

The Mughals were one of the most powerful empires in Indian history, spanning from the early 16th century to the mid-19th century. The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a descendant of both Genghis Khan and Tamerlane, who conquered Delhi in 1526. The Mughals ruled over a vast territory that included present-day India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh.

Who Were the Mughals?

The Mughals were a Muslim dynasty that ruled over India for more than three centuries. They were known for their military prowess, architectural achievements, and cultural patronage.

The Mughal emperors were known for their love of art and culture, which they patronized through the creation of magnificent buildings and monuments. Many of these structures still stand today as testament to their legacy.

The Early Mughals

Babur was the first ruler of the Mughal Empire. He was succeeded by his son Humayun, who was later deposed by Sher Shah Suri. Humayun’s son Akbar then took over and consolidated the empire through a series of military campaigns and administrative reforms.

Akbar is considered one of the greatest Mughal emperors. He abolished discriminatory taxes against non-Muslims and introduced a new religion called Din-i-Ilahi which blended elements of Islam, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism and Christianity.

The Golden Age

Under Akbar’s successors Jahangir and Shah Jahan, the Mughal Empire reached its zenith. These rulers were known for their patronage of art and culture as well as their military conquests.

Shah Jahan is perhaps best known for building the Taj Mahal in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. This magnificent mausoleum is considered one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and is a testament to the Mughals’ love of architecture.

The Decline of the Mughals

The decline of the Mughal Empire began under Aurangzeb, who ruled from 1658 to 1707. Aurangzeb was a devout Muslim who enforced strict Islamic laws and persecuted non-Muslims. His policies led to a decline in the empire’s economy and military strength.

After Aurangzeb’s death, the Mughal Empire went into decline. The British East India Company took advantage of this weakness and gradually gained control over India, ultimately leading to the end of Mughal rule.


In conclusion, the Mughals were a powerful dynasty that left an indelible mark on Indian history. Their legacy can be seen in their magnificent buildings, cultural achievements, and military conquests. While their reign came to an end with the arrival of British colonialism, their impact on Indian society can still be felt today.