Who Were the Persians in Ancient Times?

In ancient times, the Persians were one of the most dominant and powerful civilizations in the world. They originated from modern-day Iran and were known for their rich culture, art, and military might. Let’s dive deeper into who the Persians were and what made them such an influential force in history.

The Rise of Persia

The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great in 559 BCE. Under his leadership, the Persians began a campaign to conquer neighboring lands and expand their territory. By 539 BCE, they had taken control of Babylon, bringing much of Mesopotamia under their rule.

One of the key factors that contributed to the success of the Persian Empire was their military strategy. They had a highly organized army, consisting of both infantry and cavalry units. They also developed advanced weaponry such as bows and arrows, spears, and swords.

Religion and Culture

The Persians were known for their religious tolerance. While they originally followed Zoroastrianism, they allowed other religions to be practiced within their empire. This inclusivity helped to create a diverse society that valued different beliefs and traditions.

Persian art was also highly influential during this time period. They excelled in fields such as architecture, sculpture, painting, and poetry. Some of the most famous examples include the ruins of Persepolis and the poetry of Rumi.

The Decline of Persia

Despite their initial success as a superpower, the Persian Empire eventually began to decline due to a number of factors. One major issue was political instability caused by frequent changes in leadership after Cyrus’ death.

Another contributing factor was invasions by outside forces such as Alexander the Great’s conquests in 330 BCE. These invasions weakened Persian power significantly, leading to further decline over time.


Despite their eventual decline, the Persians left a significant legacy that can still be felt today. Their influence on art, culture, and religion can be seen in many parts of the world. Additionally, their military tactics and strategies have been studied and incorporated into modern warfare.

Overall, the Persians were a fascinating civilization that had a profound impact on history. From their rise to power to their decline and legacy, they continue to be a subject of interest for historians and scholars alike.

  • In summary, the Persians were an ancient civilization known for their military might, religious tolerance, and artistic achievements.
  • Key factors that contributed to their success included advanced military strategies and weaponry.
  • Their society valued religious diversity, which helped to create a rich and diverse culture.
  • The decline of Persia was caused by political instability and invasions by outside forces.
  • Their legacy can still be seen today in fields such as art, culture, religion, and warfare.


  • https://www.britannica.com/place/Persia-historical-region-Asia
  • https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-middle-east/persian-empire