Why Is Ancient Rome So Important to World History?

Ancient Rome is one of the most significant civilizations in world history. It has left a lasting legacy on modern society in many ways. In this article, we will explore the reasons why Ancient Rome is so important to world history.

The Roman Republic

The Roman Republic was established in 509 BCE and lasted for nearly 500 years. During this time, Rome evolved from a small city-state into a powerful empire that controlled much of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.

The Roman Republic was known for its system of government, which included two consuls, a senate, and an assembly of citizens. This system of government influenced many other civilizations that came after it.

The Roman Empire

In 27 BCE, the Roman Republic became the Roman Empire under the rule of Julius Caesar’s adopted son, Augustus. The Roman Empire was known for its military prowess and engineering feats such as roads, aqueducts, and public buildings. This empire lasted for over 400 years and had a significant impact on Western Civilization.

Law and Order

The Romans were known for their legal system which heavily influenced modern law. The Twelve Tables were the basis of Roman law which allowed every citizen to know their legal rights. This concept inspired many legal systems around the world including those in Europe and America.

Language and Literature

Latin is one of the most influential languages in history thanks to Rome’s dominance over Europe for centuries. Many words used in English today have Latin roots such as “et cetera” or “vice versa”. In addition to language, Ancient Rome also produced some of the greatest literary works such as Virgil’s Aeneid or Ovid’s Metamorphoses.

Art and Architecture

Rome is famous for its grand architecture such as the Colosseum or the Pantheon. Roman art was often commissioned by wealthy patrons and depicted scenes from everyday life as well as mythology. Roman artists also mastered the art of mosaic, which involved creating intricate designs using small pieces of colored stone or glass.


Ancient Rome had a polytheistic religion with gods such as Jupiter, Mars, and Venus. This religion heavily influenced Western religion and many pagan rituals were adopted by Christianity later on.

Influence on Western Civilization

The legacy of Ancient Rome can be seen in many aspects of modern Western Civilization. From government to law to language, Rome has left an indelible mark on the world. The influence of Ancient Rome can also be seen in popular culture such as movies like Gladiator or TV shows like Spartacus.


In conclusion, Ancient Rome is so important to world history because it played a significant role in shaping modern society. Its contributions to government, law, language, literature, art, architecture, and religion are still felt today. Understanding the legacy of Ancient Rome is crucial for understanding our own civilization’s roots and development.