Why Is Rome So Important in World History?

Rome, the capital city of Italy, has a rich history that dates back over 2,500 years. It has played a significant role in shaping world history and culture.

From its founding in 753 BC to the present day, Rome has been the center of power, art, architecture, religion, and philosophy. In this article, we will explore why Rome is so important in world history.


One of the reasons why Rome is so important is its strategic location. It is situated on the banks of the Tiber River in central Italy.

This made it an ideal location for trade and commerce. Rome was also located on several important trade routes that connected Europe to Asia and Africa.

Ancient Rome

Rome was founded by the brothers Romulus and Remus in 753 BC. It grew into a powerful city-state and eventually became an empire that controlled most of Europe, North Africa, and parts of Asia. Ancient Rome was known for its military might, engineering advancements like aqueducts and roads, art and architecture like the Colosseum and Pantheon, literature like Virgil’s Aeneid and Cicero’s speeches.


In 509 BC, Rome became a republic after overthrowing its last king. The Roman Republic was characterized by a complex system of government that included two consuls who served as executive leaders. The Senate was responsible for making laws while the people had limited voting rights.


In 27 BC, Augustus became the first emperor of Rome. He consolidated power under his rule and established a system of government that lasted for centuries. The Roman Empire was known for its vast territory, strong military force called Legions which conquered many lands including Britain under Emperor Hadrian who built Hadrian’s Wall to keep out invaders.


Rome was also a center of religion. Ancient Romans practiced polytheism, which meant they worshipped many gods and goddesses.

The most important of these was Jupiter, the god of the sky and thunder. Later on, Christianity became the dominant religion in Rome after Emperor Constantine converted to it in AD 312.

Influence on Western Civilization

Rome’s influence on Western civilization cannot be overstated. Its legal system, known as Roman law, has formed the basis for many modern legal systems around the world. The Latin language, which was spoken by ancient Romans, has also had a significant impact on modern languages like English, Spanish and French.

Art and Architecture

Roman art and architecture have also influenced Western civilization. The Colosseum and Pantheon are two examples of Roman architectural marvels that have stood the test of time. Roman art is characterized by realism and an emphasis on portraiture.


Roman literature has also had a significant impact on Western culture. Virgil’s Aeneid is considered one of the greatest epic poems ever written while Cicero’s speeches are still studied today for their rhetorical techniques.


In conclusion, Rome is important in world history due to its strategic location, ancient history as a republic and empire, religious significance as well as its influence on Western civilization through art, architecture, literature, law language etc. To this day Rome remains an important cultural center attracting millions of tourists every year who come to see its monuments and experience its rich history firsthand.